Less leaf surface area results in reduced water loss through the epidermis. Take a good look at the diagram and the various parts of the leaf … Most leaves are usually green, due to the presence of chlorophyll in the leaf cells. There are tiny pores, called stomata , in the surface of the leaf. As they become turgid with water the outer walls allow some stretching whilst the thick inner walls do not. The upper epidermis of the leaf is transparent, allowing light to enter the leaf. Several key factors contributing to this variation have been revealed to date, but the majority of the underlying genetic mechanisms are unclear. The guard cells are adapted in the following ways. Each species of tree adapts to these factors in an integrated way—that is, by evolving specific subpopulations adapted to the constraints of their particular environments. Small leaves have fewer stomata than larger leaves, and that adaptation also reduces water loss. Stomata The exterior of the leaf, the epidermis, is ordinarily protected by a waxy covering called the cuticle. How is a leaf adapted for photosynthesis? Structural characteristics of the mesophyll were studied in five boreal grass species experiencing a wide range of light and water supply conditions. The thickness, shape, and size of leaves are adapted to the environment. This makes the guard cell tugid and pulls open the stomata for gaseous exchange eg. Plants which live in extreme environments have adaptations to control their transpiration rate. The most important botanical adaptations by the leaf to conduct photosynthesis are the stoma, guard cells, mesophyll cells and veins. The cells in the spongy mesophyll (lower layer) are loosely packed, and covered by a thin film of water. The stomata close in the night to retain gases and moisture in the leaf cells and opens during the day for gaseous exchange to continue. Guard cells contain chlorophyll so that they can photosynthesis and produce sucrose thus causing water to diffuse into the guard cell via diffusion. Below is a close diagram of the leaf structure: The basic structure of a leaf. The structure of the leaf is adapted for gas exchange. Leaf Cell Definition. Cells Enzymes Nutrition > > > > > Transport > > > > Respiration ... #64 Adaptations of the leaf, stem and root to different environments. Signal transduction mechanisms in guard cells integrate a multitude of different stimuli to modulate stomatal aperture. The palisade cells contain many chloroplasts which allow light to be converted into energy by the leaf. However, some leaves may have different colors, caused by other plant pigments that mask the green chlorophyll. A leaf cell, by definition, is any cell found within a leaf.However, there are many different kinds of leaf cell, and each plays an integral role in the overall function of the leaf and the plant itself. 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