Also includes the Talmudim. These words (Apocrypha and apocryphal) are derivatives of the Greek apokruphos, which is a compound of apo (“away from”) and krupto/kruptos (“I hide/hidden”) [Danker, 2000, pp. The writers of the New Testament obviously considered each other’s writings as inspired work, and the majority of the New Testament writings were canonized internally. Heb. By acknowledging the role crafting a syllabus plays in canon formation, we will necessarily participate in the important project of … As the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Old Testament) gained prominence throughout the world, a group of writings was added to the traditional twenty-four of the Hebrew canon—these were the Apocrypha. This tradition shows the possible development of the canon. However, these apocryphal writings were considered non-canonical by the Jews, and therefore were not included in the Hebrew Bible.]. McDowell, Josh and Bill Wilson (1993), The Best of Josh McDowell: A Ready Defense (Nashville, TN: Nelson). However, people assault this composition from every perspective. It contained all the New Testament books with the exception of 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Revelation (McGarvey, 1974, I:34, 78). Since then, these texts — variously labeled "non-canonical," "extra-canonical, or "post-canonical" — have come to be regarded as essential supplements to the teachings of the Pali canon itself. When most people hear about the extra-canonical (also called the deuterocanonical) books, the books that come to their mind are the books commonly known as the Apocrypha. The Old Latin version was the African translation of the Bible into Latin during the second century; it lacked only Hebrews, James, and 2 Peter (I:34-35, 79-80). HAYES Princeton Responding to a variety of stimuli within the biblical text-syntactic and semantic ambiguities, gaps of detail, and more-the ancient translations, extra-canonical texts and rabbinic literature document a rich and polyphonic tradition of interpretation of In a similar fashion, these apocryphal works were included in the manuscripts (which date from the fourth and fifth centuries) as additional—but uninspired—literature. THE EXTRA-CANONICAL WRITINGS Every piece of literature outside of the Bible is extra-biblical. These are divided into the five books of Law (also called the Pentateuch or Torah; Genesis through Deuteronomy), twelve books of History (Joshua through Esther), and five books of Poetry (Job through the Song of Solomon). Early Christians in other parts of the world received certain books and translated them into their native tongues. ... Then there is a apocryphal literature. Of these books he said, “These are fountains of salvation, that they who thirst may be satisfied with the living words they contain. The story of Abel, the first martyr, is found in Genesis 4:1-9. They may have considered them as genuine as Scripture, but uninspired—and therefore non-canonical. Thus, they gained acceptance in the Catholic Church and the later divergences of the Orthodox churches, but why do we reject them? Nevertheless, some canonical books contain possible references to pseudepigraphal writings. comparatively ancient extra-canonical literature which pre tends to tell at first hand something of the Life and Words of Jesus Christ. Some are compilati… View more articles from Journal of Biblical Literature. God inspired men through the Holy Spirit to write them down, and as the books were completed, the authors added them to the canon of Scripture by inspiration. Yet weighted down, as it is, with One of the most extensive and authoritative editions of pseudepigraphal writings of the Old Testament comes from James H. Charlesworth’s two-volume set entitled The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, which includes fifty-two complete works and a supplement containing fragments of other Old Testament pseudepigraphal writings. We know that the sixty-six books currently in the canon are inspired. added). Eusebius (c. 270-339), the famed historian of the early church, wrote concerning the accepted, disputed, and rejected books of the canon. 6:4ff ” (1981, p. 49). James H. Charlesworth (New York, NY: Doubleday). In his First Apology, Justin Martyr (c. 110-165) referred to the gospels as containing the account of the Last Supper, although he did not list the titles or authors (1973, I:185). Thus, Jewish oral tradition held that Malachi was the last inspired book of the Old Testament. For example, these books were written far too late to be included in the Hebrew canon of the Bible, and therefore do not belong in the canon of our Old Testament. However, the conclusion was that only the books that comprised the Hebrew Bible were the inspired, canonical books (Bruce, pp. The Apocryphal and legendary life of Christ : being the whole body of the Apocryphal gospels and other extra canonical literature which pretends to tell of the life and words of Jesus Christ, including much matter which has not before appeared in English. Edersheim, Alfred (1972), The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans). Other articles where Popular literature is discussed: popular art: Popular literature. Thus, Peter placed the writings of Paul (Romans through Philemon, and possibly Hebrews) on the same level as Scripture—referring to them as canonical alongside the Hebrew Bible. The Epistles of Clement to the Corinthians. : Popular literature includes those writings intended for the masses and those. Jeremiah, in addition to his book of prophecy, wrote Kings and Lamentations. Why would these books be in the Greek Old Testament but not in the Hebrew Old Testament? The same is true for 1 Enoch, which dates between the second century B.C. To them he added Acts and the Pauline epistles (without listing them), 1 John and 1 Peter. Some of them were attributed to groups of people, such as the Egyptians or Ebionites. They were also written too late to be inspired, and some exist only as fragments. The Old Syriac version is the translation from Greek into the Syriac (Aramean) language of Syria and the northern part of Mesopotamia. Even its make-up is subject to intense scrutiny. Other jewish literature of the first century 1. They are as follows: Proud member Whence did the canon of these books come? Even more than the New Testament pseudepigrapha, the apocryphal writings show what the early Christians thought concerning the church, worship, and the tenets of Christianity. History supports this view. The Wisdom of Solomon. View this article's JSTOR metadata. Do not add to His words, lest He rebuke you, and you be found a liar” (30:5-6, emp. This involved the melding of Grecian philosophies, most notably Stoicism and Epicureanism, with Old Testament theology. Moreover, the ancient oral tradition of the Jews held that the thirty-nine books in our Old Testament are the only Scriptures. Charlesworth gave the following requirements for a book’s inclusion in the Old Testament pseudepigrapha: (1) They are predominantly Jewish or Christian; (2) Usually, they are falsely attributed to Old Testament figures; (3) Most of them claim inspiration; (4) Often, they expand stories and concepts in the Old Testament; (5) They were either written between 200 B.C. While there were disputes over certain books, eventually the majority of Christians accepted them, though other books lost their canonical status. Extra-Canonical Books Warner Catalog Keyword = Apocryphal Books, Keyword = Jesus Christ Biography Apocryphal and Legendary Literature . The order and numbering of the Hebrew Bible is different from the Old Testament, which explains why they list twenty-four books, while we list thirty-nine. Cross-References in Extra-Canonical Literature - posted in Bug Swatters - Mac: Hi! Schaff, Philip (1910), History of the Christian Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1973 reprint). The first, and most obvious, answer is that they contain false information about their respective authors. Eusebius (1971), “Church History of Eusebius,” The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Second Series, ed. William Whiston (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson). They considered these eight books, but we divide Samuel into two parts, Kings into two parts, and the Twelve Prophets into their respective parts—yielding a new number of twenty-one books out of the same set of the Prophets. This is evidenced by frequent allusions to Paul’s letters in the early Christian writings, showing that there was a commonly accepted set. The most likely theory is that the authors themselves were inspired to add their writings to the canon. Every piece of literature outside of the Bible is extra-biblical. There are traditionally two basic ways of organizing the vast and rather heterogeneous material called literature: one can arrange it by genre (that is, by type or kind) or by historical period. Unfortunately, the first collection of these canonical books has been lost, but from the Bible we can construct how some books were canonized. The Catholic Church’s Council of Hippo (A.D. 393), the Third Council of Carthage (A.D. 397), the Sixth Council of Carthage (A.D. 419), and the Fourth Session of the Council of Trent (A.D. 1546) accepted the Apocrypha as canonical (Bruce, 1988, pp. 266-267). The very councils that added books to the Old Testament refused to add anything to the New Testament beyond the twenty-seven inspired, commonly accepted books. It was closed in the days of Ezra, and should not be re-opened to include such late additions as the Apocrypha. Everything of a biblical nature that is not included in the Bible is extra-canonical, which include the apocryphal writings, pseudepigraphal writings, and the Apocrypha. In one passage, Jesus mentioned the Law, the Prophets, and Psalms (part of the Writings) together (Luke 24:44), showing that at some point before the time of Christ, the Jews had codified a group of literature into Scripture. Origen (1974b), “Commentary on John,” The Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. These two verses are the alpha and omega of the biblical text, the first and last verses in our Bible. In addition, many of the apocryphal additions to the Old Testament contain errors and contradictions. Josephus, Flavius (1987), The Works of Josephus, transl. Appendix 3: EXTRA CANONICAL BOOKS. [NOTE: Some Old Testament canons include certain apocryphal writings, which we will discuss later. As this digression from traditional thought occurred, a new group of writings was sought that would help reconcile sometimes opposing viewpoints of Judaism and Hellenism. It is clear from the evidence that the Jewish people accepted the thirty-nine Old Testament books as their canon—no more, no less. Finally, they were written after the time of inspiration, and therefore after God had closed the canon. Rodkinson, Michael L. (1918), New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, ed. It is on these grounds that we reject the pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament as non-canonical. This leaves only Mark, Acts, James, Jude and possibly Hebrews unsupported by internal canonization. Second Maccabees. 1987. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. Im still working through some of the research functionality, and Ive come across a bump in the road. Perhaps the earliest non-Biblical account of Jesus comes from the 1st century historian Josephus Flavius. They consist of the Halakhic and Aggadic Midrash, Halakhah and Aggadah. These are composed of books of prophecy, gospels, histories, acts, and apocalypses—many claiming to authorship by men and/or women mentioned in the Bible. xiii). The canon is the rule, the measure, by which books are accepted or rejected. First Maccabees. The remaining books of the Old Testament have no clear point of canonization; any dates or persons given for this process are speculation. In his book The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, Alfred Edersheim gave a probable explanation for the development of both the Apocrypha and Old Testament pseudepigraphal writings. Teaching canonical works in cultural context and including non-canonical literature on the syllabus, I would argue, are part of the same project. Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. Origen (1974a), “Commentary on Matthew,” The Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. xi-xii). These are composed of books of prophecy, gospels, histories, acts, and apocalypses—many claiming to authorship by men and/or women mentioned in the Bible. While these early men, early versions, and the Roman Catholic councils show the progression of the canon’s acceptance, they did not establish the canon. He began the list of universally accepted works with the four gospels (previously listed as Matthew, Mark, Luke and John [1971, I:152-155]). and the first century A.D. The books listed match the books of our Old Testament—nothing added or taken from them (Rodkinson, 1918, V:43-46). The Gospel of John, our latest Gospel coming in at +- 60 years after Jesus death (30 AD) comes very close to Flavius’ account. Geisler and Nix listed these as the Epistle of Pseudo-Barnabas, 1 and 2 Corinthians from Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Didache, the Apocalypse of Peter, the Acts of Paul and Thecla, the Gospel According to the Hebrews, the Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, and the Seven Epistles of Ignatius. These are:- a. However, there were some writings that early Christians accepted as either inspired works, or genuine (but uninspired) works—the New Testament apocrypha. The disputed books were Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Revelation (I:155-157). 1 Samuel 25:1 recorded the death of Samuel, so Jewish tradition held that Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet finished 1 Samuel and wrote all of 2 Samuel. and A.D. 200, or they preserve tradition from that time period (1983, 1:xxv). For example, there are a number of writings—including the Epistle of Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas, and Paul’s Epistle to the Laodiceans—that were “canonical” at some point in antiquity but are noncanonical today. It is highly probable, since Josephus was a historian, that this was not his own idea, but reflected an earlier Jewish tradition (see Bruce, 1988, pp. The inspired writers themselves added the books to the canon, and slowly the early church accepted them as canonical—eventually the Christian writers of the first four centuries wrote down lists of these accepted books. In between (and including) these two verses lays God’s Word, the Bible—sixty-six generally accepted books composing one book that defines Christianity and its tenets. The extra: Literary history without sexism? Ecclesiasticus, or the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach. McGarvey, J.W. The Coptic (Egyptian) version of the New Testament existed in two dialects: Sahidic, used in Upper Egypt, and Bohairic, used in Lower Egypt. We have the Word of God just as He wanted us to have it—nothing more, nothing less. Josephus said that Malachi, as the last inspired author, completed the canon of Hebrew Scripture. One of the first New Testament canons we see in history comes from the second century heretic Marcion. Information and translations for the New Testament, Apocrypha, Gnostics, Church Fathers, Gnostic Gospels, Pseudepigrapha Epistles, Apocryphal Acts, and documents of early Christianity like the Gospel of … While certain books, like 1 and 2 Maccabees, contain accurate historical records, they should not be included any more than the histories written by Tacitus or Herodotus. Both of these Coptic versions included all twenty-seven books of the New Testament, though they sometimes placed Revelation in a separate volume, as if they doubted its canonical status (I:35-36, 77-78). The New Testament pseudepigrapha are those books that were written in the form of New Testament works (gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses) but that exist outside of the New Testament canon. Tractate Baba Bathra contains the divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures (the Law, Prophets, and Hagiographa) with their contents, along with the traditional authors of each. Tobit. The majority of Protestant translations of the Bible contain thirty-nine books in the Old Testament. Testing for books that “defile the hands” (i.e., were prophetically inspired), they debated including certain apocryphal books and removing some disputed books. Samuel wrote the book that bears his name, along with Judges and Ruth. In addition to the books that have been generally recognized among Protestants as worthy of a place in the Canon, or collection of Sacred books, which taken as a whole makes up the Bible, there are certain other books which had their origin in the period beginning after the time of Malachi, and closing with the Christian century. That literature, it must be admitted, dis closes to the investigator but few golden grains amidst an intolerable deal of chaff. Feb 26, An argument can be made that there are two types of fiction when it comes to novels: Genre Fiction and Literary Fiction. In addition to the Catholic canon, the Russian Orthodox Church regards 1 and 2 Esdras (which they called 2 and 3 Esdras), Psalm 151, and 3 Maccabees as canonical (Apocrypha, pp. Deuteronomy 31:9-13 and 31:24-29 recorded that Moses wrote the Law in a book and gave it to the priests and the elders, commanding them to read it before all the people every seven years. All Scripture is God-breathed (2 Timothy 3:16), recorded and taught through the Holy Spirit by prophets, ministers, eyewitnesses (1 Peter 1:12; 2 Peter 1:16-21), or by those who, also through inspiration, compiled the accounts of eyewitnesses (Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1-3). Esdras. Marcion also subjected these epistles to extensive editing; he took out anything that did not conform to what he thought was Paul’s “doctrine” (Bruce, 1988, pp. The Law consisted of the five books of the Torah, exactly like our English Bible. Because of their great number, it is almost impossible to include all of them in a single collection, causing Schneemelcher to include only the most prominent in his work.]. The five Major Prophets (Isaiah through Daniel) and the twelve Minor Prophets (Hosea through Malachi) complete the thirty-nine books. [NOTE: Some held that Nehemiah wrote all of Ezra/Nehemiah (Rodkinson, VII/VIII:284).]. Prayer of the Three Children, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon, apocryphal additions to the Book of Daniel. Most of the books that were included in the manuscripts were placed after Revelation, almost as an appendix to the canonical works. It is because of this that the Apocrypha, which had some verifiable historical significance to the Jewish nation and theological significance to the Hellenistic Jews, were included in the Greek canon of the Old Testament. 156 JOURNAL OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE The Origin of the Names of Angels and Demons in the Extra-Canonical Apocalyptic Literature to 100 A.D. BY GEORGE A. BARTON BRYN MAWR COLLEGE IN writing the article "Demons, Angels, and Spirits (Hebrew) " for Hastings' Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics, considerable material was gathered on the names of The way some write about some of the extra-canonical or post-canonical or deutero-canonical writings one would expect the differences between the canonical and non-canonical texts to be negligible. The Catholic Church regards Tobit, Judith, an additional 107 verses scattered throughout the book of Esther (see Apocrypha, 1977, p. 96), the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah, the Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, and 1 and 2 Maccabees as canonical. However, God presented these books to us with special directives. The Talmud speaks in several places of the inspired Scripture. Scholars in our universities attack its message. 134-141). God established the canon for the New Testament through the inspired writers of the New Testament. We can quickly reject the New Testament pseudepigrapha because of their false attribution, errors, discrepancies, and false teachings. These two words originally meant “reed.” The Greeks and Semitic peoples used reeds as measuring instruments, and so the meanings of kanon and qaneh changed gradually into “rule” or “measure.” To refer to a canon is to refer to those things that have been measured for acceptance; to refer to the biblical canon is to refer to the books considered Scripture—divinely inspired works that have been preserved for a purpose (Lightfoot, 2003, p. 152). The Shepherd of Hermes. In speaking of the Old Syriac and Old Latin versions, McGarvey said: Moreover, 2 Peter, which was found in neither the Old Latin nor the Old Syriac versions, was found in both the Coptic Sahidic and Coptic Bohairic versions of the New Testament—showing that it was accepted by the early Egyptian Christians. Zechariah was a priest who was martyred by King Joash of Judah (2 Chronicles 24:17-22), and the last martyr mentioned in the historical books of the Old Testament. Also around A.D. 90, a group of Jewish rabbis gathered at Jamnia in western Judea to discuss the established canon. “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Infidels and skeptics allege that it contains numerous discrepancies. and A.D. 200” (1986, pp. However, the question remains. From evidence in the New Testament, it is obvious that the Jews had a canon—a group of accepted scriptures—that included the Law and the Prophets (see Matthew 5:17-18; 7:12; 11:13; 22:40; Luke 16:16-17; John 1:45; Acts 13:15; 24:14; 28:23; Romans 3:21). Charlesworth, J.H. Books have been attributed to Adam, Enoch, Barnabas, Thomas, Paul, and a number of others. The Talmud is a collection of Hebrew oral law (the Mishna) along with transcribed scholarly discussions and commentary (the Gemara). The Testament of Moses and the book of Jannes and Jambres date to the first century A.D. or later, so if Jude and Paul were referring to them, it would have been as contemporary fictional literature. Motyer, Alec (2001), The Story of the Old Testament, ed. Bruce M. Metzger (New York, NY: Oxford). Sections of the Psalms contain the names of their authors, and tradition attributed the other books to various authors. Some scholars contend that certain books from the Catholic and Greek Orthodox Apocrypha (Wisdom of Solomon, 2 Esdras, and the Letter of Jeremiah) belong in the Old Testament pseudepigrapha because they are falsely attributed, while certain books in the pseudepigrapha (3 and 4 Maccabees) should be included in the Old Testament apocryphal writings (Ladd, 1986, 3:1040). Erroll F. Rhodes (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1995 reprint), second edition. Epistle of Barnabas. Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans). It appears that Jesus was giving the record of martyrdom from the beginning of the Hebrew Scriptures (Genesis, written by Moses) to the end of Hebrew Scriptures (2 Chronicles, written by Ezra in the days of the last prophets)—thus denying any other books inclusion in the Old Testament canon (e.g., 1 and 2 Maccabees, which were penned after Ezra’s writings). They also stated regarding the pseudepigrapha: They contain fanciful additions to the biblical record, a mixture of Greek philosophy/mythology and Old Testament theology, platitudes that contradict the Bible, and errors in the areas of science, history, geography, etc. 120-122). 262). Do they also belong in the canon, and if not, why? The Catholic and Orthodox canons vary, not only from the Hebrew and Protestant canon, but also from each other. If a book requires a false attribution in order to be canonical, then it must have characteristics that make its inspiration and canonicity suspect. Many of these were listed or included in the best Greek manuscripts (Sinaiticus [א], Alexandrinus [A], and Bezae [D]): the Epistle of Pseudo-Barnabas (א and D), 1 and 2 Corinthians from Clement (A), the Shepherd of Hermas (א and D), the Apocalypse of Peter (D), and the Acts of Paul and Thecla (D). As the other epistles spread, they became part of these sets of New Testament writings. The Greek Orthodox Church accepts the Catholic canon, but adds 1 Esdras, Psalm 151, the Prayer of Manasseh, and 3 Maccabees to their canon, while placing 4 Maccabees in an appendix. Still others examine the Scriptures and read citations of works such as the Book of Jasher or the Acts of the Seers—none of which is included among the writings of our Great Tome. With the translation of the Old Testament into Greek around 250 B.C., the Jewish people (particularly those outside of Palestine) began a transition from traditional Judaic thought to Judeo-Hellenistic thinking. The Hebrews divided their Scriptures, twenty-four books total, into three sections: the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings (also called the Hagiographa or Holy Writings). Non-Canonical Literature. Extracanonical definition, not included in the canon of Scripture. He went on to state: Josephus considered everything written after the time of Artaxerxes to be non-canonical, because prophetic messages had ceased. 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